Projects
Космические аппараты для изучения солнечно-земных связей серии "Прогноз"

Spacecraft for exploration of solar terrestrial relations of Prognoz series

Project Overview

Characteristics


Destination:
hydrometeorology
Status:
decommissioned
Research Object:
Solar terrestrial relations
Launch Date:
1972 - 1996
Launchers:
Molniya LV with L upper stage.
Machine Weight:
850 ÷1370 kg.
Working Orbit:
High-apogee

Description


Prognoz series SC are purpose-designed satellites of the Earth, which allow the installation on them of scientific payload and which differs from previous ones, able to conduct a long lasting continuous data transmission in real time and designated to carry out astrophysical researches, solar activity and natural mechanism of solar-terrestrial relations study.

Космический аппарат Прогноз для изучения Солнечно-Земных связейThe series is composed of 12 automatic SC (Prognoz-1 – Prognoz-12 SC) launched in a calendar period, starting from 1972 untill 1996. SC were twice modernized.

Basic SC is called SO (solar object). It is designated to control radiation activity of the Sun and to predict radiation safety of astronaut flights. Three satellites of this type were manufactured (Prognoz-1 SC – Prognoz-3 SC). Project development, SoW approval and flight tests management is performed by Lavochkin Association, JSC experimental design bureau. It is manufactured at mechanical engineering plant Vympel.

After introducing a number of modifications to the onboard systems, the SC was named SOM beginning in 1975. During the Prognoz-4, -5, -6, -7, -8 spacecraft flights unique studies of the structure of solar wind shock waves near the Earth were conducted. As part of the international Relikt Project (1983, USSR, Czechoslovakia and France) Prognoz-9 spacecraft measured relic radio-emission anisotropy along the celestial sphere. Within the framework of the Soviet-Czechoslovak Intershock Project (1985), Prognoz-10 SC was launched. Its aim to study the structure and characteristics of the shock wave and magnetopause, which occur during the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere. In addition, significant information on the radiation situation in near-Earth space was obtained during the flight.

Within the international project Interbol (1995) SC of a new generation were created and received SO-М2 designation (Prognoz-M2). While maintaining the design and layout scheme of Prognoz type artificial Earth satellites, a number of onboard systems were replaced on SO-M2 SC to improve their service life, and improvements were made to significantly reduce electromagnetic and electrostatic interference.


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