The spacecraft was developed on the basis of the Luna-9 automatic station. Instead of an automatic lunar station there was a detachable pressurized container installed on the Luna-10 spacecraft – an artificial satellite of the Moon (ISL) quite simple in design and equipment composition. There was no orientation system present on ISL, therefore the spacecraft did a nonorientable flight. The ISL pressurized container had telemetry equipment needed to obtain housekeeping and scientific data, a timing device, a meter-range KRS radio system, RKT-1 decimeter-range transponder, electronic units of scientific instruments and chemical sources of current. The thermal control system of the pressurized container included a fan; heat release was done directly through the walls of the container.
The external surface of ISL was equipped with antennae of radio frequency systems, magnetometer boom of 1,5 m in length, as well as sensors of the scientific instruments.